Persona summon

Persona summon DEFAULT
This article is about the manifestation of one's personality. For other uses of the term "Persona", see Persona.

—The line most Personas say upon awakening

A Persona (ペルソナ, Perusona)? is a manifestation of a Persona user's personality in the Persona series, referred to as a "mask" for an individual to use to face hardship.

A Persona is similar to a Shadow. Shadows are malevolent manifestations of one's inner thoughts, while a Persona is a manifestation of the same feelings but tamed and trained.

If an individual takes up a resolution in their heart, the Persona will undergo a metamorphosis into a stronger form.

While the summoning sequence of a Persona differs from one installment to the next, a tradition that later adaptations follow is that blue-ish fog is always released when a Persona is invoked.

A fight using Personas weighs on the user's mind and spirit. Continuous use of a Persona will eventually drain the user's strength and stamina. Using Persona skills requires "SP," or "Spirit Points."

In the depths of human hearts, shared by all people, there is a domain where mythological archetypes dwell, and they grant an influence over an individual's personality development. Anecdotes of mythological divinities the world over probably exist because of that, so one could say that gods and demons exist not in Heaven and Hell but in the hearts of humanity. Personas even have an influence on physical and mental abilities, making their users superhumans, for example giving them mastery over weapons or resistance to terror and madness.


Megami Ibunroku Persona

MIP Art.jpeg

At the beginning of the game, the main characters play a game called "Persona." Afterward, they fall unconscious and meet Philemon, who gives them the power to use Personas. Each character's Persona "awakens," and is then able to be called out at will. Some characters who hadn't met Philemon could summon a Persona regardless—most likely due to Maki Sonomura's dreamworld, which was created by the DEVA System.

Unique to this game, the Personas that can be equipped are not determined by the character's level, but by their "Persona Level," which accumulates experience at a different rate than the character experience; invoking a Persona gives more experience to the Persona Level than using weapons or firearms. Despite this, Persona creation is tied to the protagonist's Character Level, and a Persona cannot be created if its level is more than 10 levels above him. Additionally, some Personas can only be created using a Totem, and the most powerful Personas also require specific demons' spell cards to create. Personas themselves do not level up, but grow as their Rank increases from being invoked a specific number of times in combat.

Persona 2

Maya Amano summoning a Persona (Artemis).

Persona 2: Innocent Sin and Persona 2: Eternal Punishment features a similar mechanic to Megami Ibunroku Persona, in which the main characters can already have the ability to summon Personas due to previously playing the Persona game when they were kids. Each time the character summons a Persona, it costs a flat amount of SP regardless of the spell used, dictated by the affinity between the user and the Persona. Characters with the "Worst" affinity with a Persona simply cannot equip it. Better affinity with a Persona has a few advantages: the SP cost is lower and there is a higher chance of triggering mutations, which in Eternal Punishment includes a higher chance of unlocking a Persona's Unknown Power.

The level of each Persona is static, but they gain Rank gradually when they are summoned in battle (rather than using healing or support spells out of battle). A Persona learns new spells as it reaches higher ranks, plus one more "mutation spell" only obtainable via mutation after it has reached at least rank 6. After reaching Max Rank, a Persona's stats can continue to grow via mutation.

Personas can be created in the Velvet Room by spending a certain amount of Tarot Cards that have the same Arcana as the target Persona. Some Personas also require a Material Card to create. Before confirming the creation, the player can also add a Skill Card and/or an Incense Card to slightly enhance the Persona. The player can create any Persona up to 5 levels higher than any party member of the highest level with the only consequence being that it requires more SP to cast any spell with that Persona.

Persona 3

In order to summon a Persona, one must use an Evoker, though there are some cases where an Evoker is not required for summoning. A Persona can actually be artificially created, but because the Persona does not come naturally to its artificial user, it becomes violent and difficult to control; if the Persona-user isn't strong enough to hold back the Persona, it may even wind up killing the host. Artificial Personas can be suppressed by certain drugs, called Suppressants, but use of the drugs causes fatal side-effects. It's possible for one to have the power of the Wild Card, meaning that multiple Personas can be contained simultaneously. The only two seen capable of this power are the silentprotagonists and Aigis. Personas can no longer be summoned or equipped if their level is higher than the protagonist's.

During The Answer chapter of Persona 3 FES, Metis reveals that Personas are tamed Shadows.

Philemon does not appear in Persona 3, but there are several references to him, namely a fluttering blue butterfly that can be seen several times throughout the game.

In Persona 3 The Movie, when the user's stamina is used up too much, they can no longer summon a Persona unless they take a rest or until they are healed. Similar to Persona 4 The Animation, there have been cases where a user takes damage after a Persona is destroyed (for example, Takaya recoils in pain after Hypnos is destroyed by Caesar).

Persona 4

The Investigation Team with their Personas.

When one enters the Midnight Channel, one's innermost secrets that they actively try to suppress materialize and become a Shadow Self, which then attempts to force its host to accept it. If one cannot accept the Shadow Self, or if they refuse to acknowledge what they want to keep hidden most, the Shadow becomes enraged, attracting all nearby lesser Shadows to itself and transforming into a monster which attempts to kill the person it spawned from. If one can face oneself and admit to what the Shadow Self says, then the Shadow transforms into a Persona loyal to its user. During battle, one summons their Persona by manifesting their tarot card and breaking it, causing the Persona to emerge.

Igor later reveals that a Persona is formed by having one's ego master its Shadow, but adds that it is also possible for a Shadow to become a Persona-user by developing its own ego (like in the case of Teddie). As Teddie is the only known Shadow to be able to use a Persona, this possibility is extremely rare at best.

In the anime, rather than summoning it only for spells, Personas do all of the fighting against the Shadows. But when the Persona takes damage, so does its user, and a very weakened Persona will start to show a bit of static in its body. In addition, when Yu fuses his Persona (aided subconsciously by Igor), he does it on the spot.

Persona 4 Arena

The use of Personas and their existence in the world is explored more in Arena. Members of the original SEES form the "Shadow Operatives," under control of the Kirijo Group, working under Mitsuru Kirijo, who partner with public safety officers on cases involving Shadows. Personas and Shadows are shown to be known by higher-ranking officials and are kept secret from public knowledge. It is now shown that Personas are still able to be summoned in the regular world even after the Dark Hour disappeared, but also requires the use of an Evoker. However, it can be summoned without one during a crisis or with extreme concentration.

The Tarot Cards the Investigation Team use seem to be of little use in the real world, as the members are shown to be unable to summon their Personas outside the TV World, as Rise mentions once in Persona 4. The TV World, however, helps those who have summoned Personas beforehand, making it much easier than before, to the point where the use of an Evoker isn't necessary to summon one; Mitsuru expresses surprise at only having to think of her Persona to bring it out.

Persona 4 Arena Ultimax

Persona 4 Arena Ultimax also showed that a Support Persona can become a Combat Persona if the user displays a strong resolve to fight. Rise achieves this with Himiko due to her desire to save her friends during the events of Ultimax.

Persona 4: Dancing All Night

Rise further displayed the ability to morph her Persona into other forms by using the power of Kanamin Kitchen's positive energy and acceptance of their Shadow Selves to transform Himiko into a grand stage for their final battle against Mikuratana-no-Kami.

Persona 5

—Igor to the protagonist, Persona 5


In Persona 5, Personas are formed by individuals who find themselves in the Metaverse and are dealing with feelings of frustration of being wronged or taken advantage of. Should the person decide to rebel and take revenge, their Shadow Self calls out to them, forming a mask on their face. Their eyes also turn yellow, indicating their Shadow Selves are merging with their owners. Ripping this mask from their face formalizes their contract, causing the Shadow Self to turn into their Persona and take form. The process of tearing off one's mask is particularly painful, as it leads to excessive bleeding. Once the contract has been formed, the person then receives a special thief suit that represents their idea of a rebel, and the mask becomes a normal mask that they can freely take off without pain and serves as the conduit for their Persona abilities.

Futaba Sakura is a partial exception to this. She faces her Shadow Self like the characters do in Persona 4, and does not tear off a mask to gain her Persona. Like the other Phantom Thieves, however, her awakening was fueled by a desire to take revenge against those who wronged her (in her case, the Conspiracy that faked her mother's suicide). Her focus on discovering the truth rather than simple revenge results in her not having combat abilities like the others. Haru Okumura shows that a person can access their Persona and thief suit simply by feeling rebellious; but without a firm resolve, it can only manifest. Only upon fully accepting her desire to rebel against her father did her persona Milady finally access its full power. Milady affirmed this by stating that she could unleash her true potential during Haru's awakening.

In Persona 5 The Animation, just like prior anime adaptations of the series, when a Persona is hurt or destroyed, the user will be hurt as well. Goro Akechi suffered damage when his Persona, Loki, was defeated during his fight with Ren Amamiya.

In Persona 5 Royal, Sumire Yoshizawa is a unique case since her initial awakening involves no blood after she removes her mask, hinting that she did not have a complete awakening similar to Haru. Her Persona was strong enough to fight, however, considering Sumire was currently living a life as her sister, it can be assumed that her awakening was incomplete due to her not being true to herself. Later, after accepting herself and desiring to fight without needing to rely on her friends, most notably the protagonist, Sumire fully awakens Cendrillon. This time, her Persona merges with the spirit of her sister, the real Kasumi.

It is shown that mental instability—or possibly influence from an outside force—can lead to a Persona being removed or corrupted, as was the case for Sumire. An unconscious, restrained Sumire had her Persona forcibly removed, turning it into a powerful berserk state. It is unclear if this situation is unique to Sumire's circumstances by virtue of her being especially vulnerable to it due to her pre-existing cognitive instability due to previous tampering as well as her traumatic grief and depression, or because that is simply a power Takuto Maruki has.

Additionally, there is indication that Personas are able to have some level of autonomy from their owners, possibly to the point that they're able to influence them and their psyche, as indicated by Azathoth urging Maruki to continue his plans when Maruki expressed doubts, as well as periodically and seemingly outright acting through him. It is unclear whether this case of Personas acting somewhat independently is similar to Nyarlathotep, or if it is more similar to the unstable Persona users seen in Persona 3. Once again evoking previous Persona games, Maruki was able to fuse with his own Persona to increase his power to near-unbeatable levels.

Persona -trinity soul-

Everyone possesses a Persona, but only those who have summoned it before and know of its existence may call it out by will by concentrating one's mind. Personas that have consumed other Personas will be more unstable and will need Persona suppressors to keep their Personas under control. Although Persona -trinity soul- is supposed to take place in relation to Persona 3, Evokers are never used and summoning Personas is an easier task than it was in the game on which this anime was based.

The anime also states that a person's ability to summon a Persona weakens as they reach adulthood, and they may need to take medicine to keep up. This, however, contradicts with Megami Ibunroku Persona and Persona 2 , as the rest of the adult cast can summon their Personas without issue, with Persona 5 Strikers having an adult awaken to a Persona as well. One character speculates that this may simply be due to adults' tendency to lose their strong sense of identity as they grow older, and that it's not inherently about age, but personality. Despite that, however, this is one of the reasons that Persona -trinity soul- is not considered canonical to the series.

Persona Behavior


The awakening of a Persona in someone with the ability to summon and command them can depend on several internal and external factors, but the most recurrent way in users is sudden danger or an emotional episode. In Megami Ibunroku Persona, Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment, the main casts are confronted by threats from demons or other Personas, which fully activate their Persona abilities and allow them to defend themselves. An example of an emotional awakening is with Kei Nanjo, who sees his retainer Yamaoka mortally wounded by demons. Danger may be deliberately placed before the characters to prompt their awakening, as in Eternal Punishment where JOKER summons demons and forces Maya Amano, Ulala Serizawa and Katsuya Suou to awaken to their Personas.

In Persona 3, Persona awakenings depicted in the game show that a sudden danger prompted them to appear. Mitsuru Kirijo had joined her father on an expedition into Tartarus, and when he was attacked by Shadows she awakened to Penthesilea. Similar happenings occur with Akihiko Sanada, Junpei Iori, Yukari Takeba, Ken Amada and Koromaru. An exception is Fuuka Yamagishi, who awoke to her Persona naturally when she wanted to protect others. The protagonist's power was awakened through a combination of danger, his contract with Igor and some strange prompt from the boy Pharos. Persona 3 also mentions that Persona users must have the "potential."

Persona 4 shows awakening in a slightly different way. While the protagonist Yu Narukami awakens to his Persona ability when attacked by Shadows, the other members of the Investigation Team are faced with their berserk Shadow Selves, which must be defeated and accepted before they transform into Personas.

In Persona 5, each Persona awakening is triggered by the user facing against some detested fate or person, such as Ryuji Sakamoto facing down his tormentor Suguru Kamoshida; every member of the Phantom Thieves makes a resolve to stand against their oppressors. The process is traumatic, as the user is wracked with debilitating pain.

In virtually every case of awakening since Persona 3, the process is physically and mentally exhausting, with the newly-awakened user needing to rest away from the field of battle for a time.

Loss of Control

While Philemon describes the Personas as reflections of a character's inner self, there have been many instances where a Persona has rebelled against their user. Every recorded incident has either been due to the extremely risky procedure of artificial Persona awakening, or external factors.

In Persona 3, for example, Strega members must take medication to prevent losing control of their Persona and being killed by it, as they are a group of artificial Persona users. In Persona 3 The Movie, Shinjiro is strangled by his Persona Castor. Additionally, during Megami Ibunroku Persona, Takahisa Kandori loses control of his Persona and it possesses him, turning him into a demon. However, this was because his Persona was actually Nyarlathotep in disguise.

In Persona 4, Teddie mentions that denying a Shadow's message again after it has manifested as a Persona can result in it devolving back into a Shadow and attempting to kill its user. Additionally, according to the Malevolent Entity, a Persona will revert into a Shadow if its user experiences extreme psychological stress, allowing him to then use it to create a body to destroy the outer world. In reality, this was merely a miscalculation by the Malevolent Entity; Shadows that have reverted from Personas are much more obedient to their hosts due to its experience as a Persona, making it very difficult for the Malevolent Entity to directly take them as a part of its body without any backlash, forcing him to change his plan. This reversion is also seen in Persona 4 The Animation, where Izanagi dissolves into Shadow Yu and reforms back forth simply by being talked to, outlining how greatly Yu relied on his friends. Due to the nature of this occurrence, and how Yu Narukami was under a great deal of emotional stress during his fight with Margaret, this can be seen as supporting evidence for the Malevolent Entity's remarks.

Persona 5 Royal marks the first time where Personas can completely go out of control and take over their users due to a combination of external influence and their own grief. Takuto Maruki obtained his Persona after his fiancée Rumi's parents were murdered and she subsequently fell into catatonic depression. This granted him the power to alter anyone's cognition. Maruki later uses this power to restrain Sumire Yoshizawa, causing her persona, Cendrillon to go berserk. In addition, Maruki's ultimate Persona, Adam Kadmon, assumes full control over Maruki after he willingly surrenders himself to his own Persona in desperation, raising its strength to an almost godlike level.

Just like demons fused by the Cathedral of Shadows in Megami Tensei games, Personas cannot be controlled by a person that is not of an equal or greater strength than it, which is the reason why the Velvet Room usually refuses to fuse Personas that are of a higher level than its guest. The actual effects are seen in Persona Q, where Elizabeth attempts to use a Zeus that is one level higher than herself against the party, and ends up possessed by it in the process. However, in Persona 5, should the protagonist progress the Strength Confidant enough, they are allowed to pay to fuse Personas at a higher level. In Persona 5 Royal this is given earlier, but with a higher cost until the protagonist maxes the Confidant.

The Persona Game

In Megami Ibunroku Persona and Persona 2, there is a ritual that appears in the form of a game, and an incantation respectively.

In Megami Ibunroku Persona, the "Persona" game starts with four participants in each of the four corners of a room facing inward, with the rest of the participants standing inside the room. One of the people in the corners will shout out something along the lines of "Persona, Persona, please come here." Then the first person walks to the right, until they're standing by the second person in a corner. Then that person repeats the action, ending up near the third and so on. The game ends when the fourth person reaches the spot the first was positioned at the start of the game.

In Persona 2, the game is called "Master Persona Incantation," which was rumored to let one see their future. All the participants stand in a circle and walk counterclockwise twice while shouting out "Master Persona, Master Persona, please come to us!" each time. Then someone walks behind the person in front, and then that person walks. The cycle completes when the last person ends up at the first person's spot. A final shout of "Master Persona, Master Persona, please come to us!" finishes the incantation.

Related Quotes

Persona 2: Innocent Sin

—Maya Amano

Persona 3 FES


Persona 3 Drama CD: Moonlight

—Mysterious Girl

Persona 4

—unofficial project document, read by Naoto Shirogane


Persona 4: Dancing All Night

— Yu Narukami, during the first dance in story mode

Persona 5 / Royal


—Maruki, on the corruption of Cendrillon

See Also

Persona Lists

Persona Categories


  • The Persona Game is based on one famous urban legend in Japan, "Square." The origin was about a group of five mountaineers stuck in a heavy blizzard. One member died and was buried. When the remaining four mountaineers reached a small abandoned house, they found there was nothing around for them to light a fire. In order to stay awake and survive the freezing night, they began an activity (performed in Persona) where each member stands in a corner and takes turns walking counter-clockwise to tap the next person on the shoulder. The strange thing about this activity is that there should have been nobody standing in the first corner for the fourth person to tap, but this wasn't the case which led them to believe the mysterious fifth participant in the game was the ghost of their friend they had buried earlier.
  • In every Persona game except Persona 5, the Personas are summoned in the Velvet Room in the form of a Card; during fusion, Igor or the Velvet Room attendant fuses cards holding Personas into a new Persona, which also comes in the form of a card or is confined or changed into a card after being summoned.
  • In Persona 5, the sound effect accompanying a Persona summon has been changed from "(カッ, ka)?" (flash) to "(ブチッ, Buchi)?" (snap), implying that the characters have hit a breaking point of some kind, which results in the manifestation of their Persona.
  • The Guardian system from Shin Megami Tensei: if... serves as the basis of the Personas.
  • In Persona 2: Innocent Sin, it is implied through NPC interaction during Hitler's attack on Sevens that normal people are unable to see Personas.
    • While this may seem contradictory with later installments (Persona 3 and onward) where normal people are in fact able to see Personas—be it the main cast before they gain one (Yosuke and Ryuji) or other people (Natsuki Moriyama)—it was under different circumstances, like being in another realm (the Dark Hour, the TV World and the Metaverse).

Persona (series)

For the video game of the same name, see Revelations: Persona.

Video game and media franchise

Video game series

Persona PSP logo.svg

The logo of Shin Megami Tensei: Persona, the remake of the first game in the series. Each game uses its own font and styling.

Genre(s)Role-playing, social simulation
Composer(s)Shoji Meguro
Platform(s)PlayStation, Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation Vita, Nintendo 3DS, Arcade, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch
First releaseRevelations: Persona
September 20, 1996
Latest releasePersona 5 Strikers
February 20, 2020
Parent seriesMegami Tensei

Persona,[Jp. 1] previously known as Shin Megami Tensei: Persona outside of Japan, is a video game franchise developed and primarily published by Atlus, and owned by Sega.[a] Focusing around a series of role-playing video games, Persona is a spin-off from Atlus' Megami Tensei franchise. The first entry in the series, Revelations: Persona,[b] was released in 1996 for the PlayStation. The series has seen several more games since, with the most recent main entry being 2019's Persona 5 Royal.

Persona began as a spin-off based on the positively-received high school setting of Shin Megami Tensei If... (1994). Persona's core features include a group of students as the main cast, a silent protagonist similar to the mainline Megami Tensei franchise, and combat using Personas. Since the release of Persona 3 in 2006, the main series has used a social simulation function called Social Links, which are directly linked to how Personas evolve. Character designs are by series co-creator Kazuma Kaneko (Persona and the Persona 2 duology) and Shigenori Soejima (Persona 3 onwards). Its overall theme is exploration of the human psyche and how the characters find their true selves. The series' recurring concepts and design elements draw on Jungian psychology, psychological personas and tarot cards, along with religion, mythology, and literature themes and influences.

Revelations: Persona was the first role-playing Megami Tensei game to be released outside of Japan. Beginning with Persona 2: Eternal Punishment, the English localizations began to remain faithful to the Japanese versions at the insistence of Atlus. The series is highly popular internationally, becoming the best-known Megami Tensei spin-off and establishing Atlus and the Megami Tensei franchise in North America. Following the release of Persona 3 and 4, the series also established a strong following in Europe. The series has since gone on to sell over 15 million copies worldwide, outselling its parent franchise. There have been numerous adaptations, including anime television series, films, novelizations, mangas, stage plays, radio dramas, and musical concerts.


Main series[edit]

  • Revelations: Persona is the first entry in the series, and was released in Japan and North America for the PlayStation in 1996.[1][2] A port to Microsoft Windows was released in Japan in 1999.[3] The game was later ported to the PlayStation Portable (PSP): it was published in 2009 in Japan and North America as physical and digital releases, and 2010 in Europe as a digital release.[4][5][6] Set in the town of Mikage-cho, it follows a group of high school students from St. Hermelin High, who are forced to confront an outbreak of demons in their hometown.[7]
  • Persona 2: Innocent Sin is the second entry in the series, released in Japan for the PlayStation in 1999.[1] After the success of Persona's PSP port, a port of Innocent Sin was greenlit. For this version, adjustments were made so that it played more like its sequel, along with added features and a new scenario.[8][9] The port was released in 2011 in all regions.[11][12][13] Set in the coastal city of Sumaru, the story follows Tatsuya Suou, a student of Seven Sisters High, as he confronts phenomena generated by reality-altering rumors.[14]
  • Persona 2: Eternal Punishment is the third entry in the main series, released in Japan and North America for the PlayStation in 2000.[15][16] Like Innocent Sin, it was remade for PSP, and included a new scenario by the game's original writer.[17] The remake released in Japan in 2012, but did not reach the West. The original version was re-released worldwide on PlayStation Network (PSN) in 2013 in response to this.[17][18] Set shortly after the ending of Innocent Sin, the story follows Maya Amano, a supporting character from the previous game, as she confronts a similar rumor-created threat along with Tatsuya.[19]
  • Persona 3 is the fourth entry in the main series. Developed for PlayStation 2, it released in 2006 in Japan, 2007 in North America, and 2008 in Europe.[1][20][21]Persona 3 FES, a director's cut featuring new content and an epilogue, was released in 2007 in Japan and 2008 in North America and Europe.[22] The main portion of FES was later ported to the PSP in Japan in 2009, North America in 2010, and in Europe in 2011 as Persona 3 Portable: it featured a few enhancements such as a female playable character and the ability to control all characters in battle, and some content was adjusted or removed so it could fit on a portable platform.[23][24] The story takes place in the town of Iwatodai, following a group of students known as "S.E.E.S." who fight monsters that appear during a time known as the Dark Hour.[25]
  • Persona 4 is the fifth entry in the main series, released for the PlayStation 2 in 2008 in Japan and North America, and 2009 in Europe.[26] The success of Persona 3 Portable inspired the creation of a portable version of Persona 4, titled Persona 4 Golden. As using the PSP would result in cutting too much content, it was instead developed for PlayStation Vita, which allowed for the addition of new features and content. A port of Golden was released for Microsoft Windows in 2020. [24]Persona 4 takes place in the rural town of Inaba, where a group of students investigate a series of killings related to a realm known as the Midnight Channel.[27]
  • Persona 5 is the sixth entry in the main series, released for the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4. It was released in 2016 in Japan, and in 2017 in North America and Europe.[1][28]Persona 5 Royal, an enhanced version of the game similar to Persona 4 Golden for Persona 4, was released in Japan in 2019 and worldwide the following year.[29][30]Persona 5 is set in Tokyo and follows a group of students as they adopt disguises of thieves to tackle the city's corruption and attain freedom from imposed societal pressures.[31][32]


Persona 3 received a Japan-exclusive spin-off online game titled Persona 3: The Night Before;[Jp. 2] it follows a similar cycle of daytime activities and night time combat as the original game, with one player being chosen as the party leader each night.[33] After its closure in 2008, a new free-to-play browser game titled Persona Ain Soph[Jp. 3] was released that year; the gameplay focused on players fusing Personas and confronting a threat known as the Qliphoth. Staying exclusive to Japan, it closed down in June 2010.[34][35] A fighting game sequel to Persona 4, Persona 4 Arena, was released in arcades in Japan in 2012.[36] Console versions were released in 2012 in Japan and North America, and 2013 in Europe.[37][38][39] A sequel, Persona 4 Arena Ultimax, was similarly released in Japanese arcades in 2013, then released in 2014 in all regions for consoles.[40][41][42] A standalone spin-off for the Nintendo 3DS, Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth, was released worldwide in 2014;[1] it features the full casts of Persona 3 and 4, and is classed by Atlus as an official entry in the Persona canon.[43] A sequel, Persona Q2: New Cinema Labyrinth, saw the addition of the Persona 5 characters and was released in Japan in 2018 and worldwide in 2019.[44] A rhythm game set after the events of Persona 4 Arena Ultimax, Persona 4: Dancing All Night, was released worldwide in 2015.[45][46][47] Two follow-ups to Dancing All Night, Persona 3: Dancing in Moonlight and Persona 5: Dancing in Starlight, were released together in 2018.[48] A Dynasty Warriors-style action role-playing sequel to Persona 5, Persona 5 Strikers, was released in Japan in 2020 and worldwide the following year.[49][50]

Several Persona mobile games have been made in partnership with other Japanese mobile companies such as BBMF. Their first partnership was in 2006 with the development and release of Megami Ibunroku Persona: Chapter of the Foreign Tower of Emptiness,[Jp. 4] a 3D dungeon crawler set within the environments of the first Persona game.[51] The companies later collaborated on two mobile games based on the Persona 2 games: Persona 2: Innocent Sin - Lost Memories[Jp. 5] in 2007, and Persona 2: Eternal Punishment - Infinity Mask[Jp. 6] in 2009. Both games carried over the basic gameplay functions of the original games tailored for mobile phones.[52][53] Many mobile spin-offs are related to Persona 3: there is an RPG side-story titled Persona 3 Em,[Jp. 7] an action game prequel set ten years prior to Persona 3 titled Aegis: The First Mission,[Jp. 8] and an alternate version of Persona 3 featuring different characters titled Persona 3 Social.[Jp. 9] Multiple Persona 3-themed puzzle games have also been developed.[54][55][56][57][58][59] An online mobile RPG set around the high school featured in Persona 3, titled Persona Mobile Online,[Jp. 10] was released in 2009.[60]Persona 4 likewise received a mobile card game spin-off, titled Persona 4 The Card Battle.[Jp. 11][61]

Common elements[edit]


Screenshots from Persona 4 Golden featuring a battle against Shadows using a Persona (above) and the growth of Social Links (below).

The gameplay of the Persona series revolves around combat against various enemy types: Demons, Shadows and Personas.[62][63][64][65] Main combat takes place during dungeon crawling segments within various locations. The way battles initiate varies between random encounters (Persona, Persona 2) or running into models representing enemy groups (Persona 3 onwards). Battles are governed by a turn-based system, where the player party and enemies each attack the opposing side. Actions in battle include standard physical attacks using short-range melee or long-range projectile weapons, magical attacks, using items, guarding, and under certain conditions escaping from battles. During battle, either side can strike an enemy's weakness, which deals more damage than other attacks.[14][27][66][67][68] Starting with Persona 3, landing a critical hit grants the character an extra turn. If all enemies are knocked down by critical hits, the party can perform an "All Out Attack", with all party members attacking at once and dealing high damage. Each party member is manually controlled by the player in all but one Persona title: in Persona 3, all the party apart from the main character are controlled by an AI-based command system. The general gameplay has remained consistent across all Persona games.[14][27][65][68][69][70]

Each Persona game also includes unique elements. In Persona, battles take place on a grid-based battlefield, with characters' and enemies' movements dictated by their placement on the battlefield.[63] This system was abandoned for the Persona 2 games: the party has free movement across the battlefield, and is assigned a set of moves which can be changed in the menu during and in between battles.[14][71] In Persona and Persona 3, there is a lunar phase tied to gameplay, time progression, and the plot. In Persona 4, this was changed to a weather-based system, where changes in the weather keyed to the story affected enemy behavior.[65][72][73]Persona 5 introduces elements such as platforming and stealth gameplay to dungeon exploration.[62][68][74] The All-Out Attack can be initiated in a "Hold-Up" session, triggered when all enemies are knocked down.[75]


A defining aspect of the series is the use of the "Persona", which are physical manifestations of a person's psyche and subconscious used for combat.[76] The main Personas for the cast used up to Persona 3 were inspired by Graeco-Roman mythology. Persona 4's were based on Japanese deities; while Persona 5 used characters inspired by fictional and historical outlaws and thieves.[77][78][79] The summoning ritual for Personas in battle varies throughout the series: in early games, the party gains the ability to summon through a short ritual after playing a parlor game; in Persona 3, they fire a gun-like device called an Evoker at their head to overcome their cowardice; in Persona 4, they summon their Personas by destroying Tarot cards; in Persona 5, they are summoned through the removal of the characters' masks.[76][80]

Personas are used for types of physical attack and magical attacks, along with actions such as healing and curing or inflicting status effects.[14][27][63][67][76][81] For all Persona games, all playable characters start out with an initial Persona, which can evolve into other Personas through story-based events and use during battle.[14][70][81] In multiple Persona games, two or more Personas can be summoned at once to perform a powerful Fusion Spell.[14][70][71] In Persona 3, 4 and 5, only the main character can wield and change between multiple Personas; the other characters use a single Persona.[27][81] During the course of the game, the player acquires more Personas through a system of Skill Cards, represented by Major Arcana Tarot cards. Each skill card represents a different Persona family, which in turn hold their own abilities inherent to that family. Multiple Personas can be fused together to create a new Persona with improved and inherited abilities: these range from fusing two Personas in the Persona 2 duology to up to twelve in Persona 4.[14][27][63][67][81][82] Starting with Persona 3, the main protagonist of each game has an ability known as "Wild Card", an ability to summon multiple Personas represented by the Fool Arcana.[83]

Social Links and Negotiation[edit]

"Social Links" is a system introduced in Persona 3 that is a form of character interaction tied to the growth of Personas. During their time outside battle, the main character can interact with and grow a particular Social Link, which acts as an independent character growth system tied to a Persona family or Arcanum. As the main character's relationship with the character representing a Social Link grows, its rank is raised and more powerful Personas related to the Social Link's assigned Arcanum can be summoned and fused.[27][66] Attributes related to the main character's social life can also be used to improve their Persona abilities, such as their academic abilities and social aptitude.[27][81] An enhanced version of the Social Link system, known as "Confidants", appeared in Persona 5.[62][84]

In Persona, the Persona 2 duology, and Persona 5, there is also a "Negotiation" mechanic carried over from the Megami Tensei series, in which player characters can talk with enemies and provoke certain actions depending on their dialogue choices. Some responses yield Skill Cards for use in creating new Personas.[14][63] Negotiation was removed from Persona 3 and Persona 4, although Atlus staff considered the Social Link system and aspects of Persona fusion to be a "disguised" version of it.[85] In Persona 5, they can be initiated during a "Hold Up" session; Shadows can be persuaded to join the party as a new Persona if the Negotiation is successful, the player does not already have them, and is at an appropriate experience level.[75][86]

Setting and themes[edit]

The Persona series takes place in modern-day Japan and focuses on a group of high school students, with the exception to this being Eternal Punishment, which focused on a group of adults.[76][87] The setting has been described as urban fantasy, with extraordinary events happening in otherwise normal locations.[88] The typical setting used is a city, with a noted exception being the rural town setting of Persona 4.[87] Although they are typically stand-alone games that only share thematic elements, the Persona games share a continuity, with elements from previous games turning up in later ones.[76][87]Persona and the Persona 2 games shared narrative elements which were concluded with Eternal Punishment, so Persona 3 started out with a fresh setting and characters.[89] The first in the series is Persona, set in the year 1996. This is followed by the events of Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment in 1999. At the end of Innocent Sin, the main characters rewrite events to avert the destruction of Earth, creating the Eternal Punishment reality, with the original reality becoming an isolated Other Side. Persona 3 and subsequent games stem from Eternal Punishment.[7][90]Persona 3 is set from 2009 to 2010, and Persona 4 is set from 2011 to 2012. The Persona 4 Arena games and Dancing All Night take place in the months following Persona 4.[7][91][92] In contrast, Persona 5 is set in a non-specific year referred to as "20XX".[93] The Persona Q series takes place in a separate enclosed world in which the characters of Persona 3, 4, and 5 are drawn into from their respective time periods.[94] Dialogue in Q2 also suggests that Persona 5 takes place only a few years after 4.

A central concept for the series is the collective unconscious, a place generated by the hearts of humanity and from which Personas are born.[7][90] According to the official Persona Club P3 book, the collective unconscious was generated by the primitive life on Earth as a means of containing the spiritual essence of Nyx, a space-born being whose presence would cause the death of all life on Earth. Her body was damaged by the impact and became the moon, while her psyche was left on the surface and locked away at the heart of the collective unconscious. The fragments of Nyx's psyche, known as "Shadows", are both a threat and a crucial part of humanity's existence. To further help defend against hostile Shadows, people generated the deities that exist within the collective unconscious, many of which manifest as Personas. Nyx appears in Persona 3 as the antagonist.[95] The major dungeon locations in each game are generated by the latent wishes and desires of humans and are generally used by another force for their own ends.[96] A recurring location appearing in most of the games is the "Velvet Room", a place between reality and unconsciousness created by Philemon that changes form depending on the psyche of its current guest. Its inhabitants, led by an enigmatic old man called Igor, aid the main characters by helping them hone their Persona abilities. While normally inaccessible and invisible to all except those who forged a contract with the room, others can be summoned alongside the guest, intentionally or otherwise.[97][98][83][99]

The main character of each Persona game is a silent protagonist representing the player, with a manner described by the series' director as "silent and cool".[100] When the writer for new story content in Eternal Punishment's PSP version wished for the main character to have spoken dialogue, this was vetoed as it went against the series tradition.[101] Two recurring characters generated by the collective unconscious are Philemon and Nyarlathotep, the respective representatives of the positive and negative traits of humanity.[7] In Innocent Sin, the two reveal that they are engaged in a proxy contest as to whether humanity can embrace its contradictory feelings and find a higher purpose before destroying itself.[90] Philemon makes appearances in later Persona games as a blue butterfly.[77][83] Many of the major antagonists in the series are personifications of death generated by the human subconscious.[83] The central theme of the Persona series is exploration of the human psyche and the main characters discovering their true selves.[102] The stories generally focus on the main cast's interpersonal relationships and psychologies.[103] There is also an underlying focus on "the human soul".[104]

Many of the concepts and characters within the series (Personas, Shadows, Philemon) use Jungian psychology and archetypes.[98] A recurring motif are the "masks" people wear during everyday life, which ties back to their Personas. This motif was more overtly expressed in Persona 5 through the main casts' use of masks in their thief guises.[100][105] The dual lives of the main casts are directly inspired by these themes.[96] Each game also includes specific themes and motifs. Persona 2 focuses on the effect of rumors on the fabric of reality (referred to by the developers as "the power of Kotodama"); Persona 3 employs themes involving depression and the darkness within people; Persona 4 focuses on how gossip and the media influences people's views of others; and Persona 5 shows how the main characters pursue personal freedom in a restrictive modern society.[77][88][106] A recurring element in the earlier entries is "The Butterfly Dream", a famous story by the Chinese philosopher Zhuang Zhou. It ties in with the series' themes, and also with Philemon's frequent appearances as a butterfly.[7] Philemon's original appearance was based on Zhuang Zhou.[98] The character Nyarlathotep is based on the character of the same name from H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos, and the Mythos as a whole is frequently referenced in Persona 2.[77][107] The Velvet Room was based on the Black Lodge from Twin Peaks, while Igor and his assistants are all named after characters from Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein and its adaptations.[98][83]


The Persona series was first conceived after the release of Shin Megami Tensei If... for the Super Famicom. As the high school setting of If... had been positively received, Atlus decided to create a dedicated subseries focusing on the inner struggles of young adults.[104] The focus on high school life was also decided upon due to the experiences of the series' creators, Kouji Okada and Kazuma Kaneko: according to them, as nearly everyone experiences being a student at some point in their lives, it was something everyone could relate to, representing a time of both learning and personal freedom. In their view, this approach helped players accept the series' themes and the variety of ideas included in each title. Kaneko in particular tried to recreate his experiences and the impact it had on him during his time with the series.[108] The main concept behind the first game was a Megami Tensei title that was more approachable for new and casual players than the main series. The abundance of casual games on the PlayStation reinforced this decision.[98][109] The game's title, Megami Ibunroku,[Jp. 12] represented the game's status as a direct spin-off from the series.[110] It was later dropped to further define Persona as a standalone series.[107] After the success of Persona, Innocent Sin began development, retaining many of the original staff. During the writing of Innocent Sin, it was decided that the world of Persona 2 needed a different perspective than that of the current protagonist. This decision laid the groundwork for Eternal Punishment.[107][111] Following this, the Persona series entered a hiatus while focus turned to other projects, including Shin Megami Tensei III: Nocturne.[112]

The conceptual Persona 3 was submitted to Atlus in 2003 by Katsura Hashino, who had worked as a designer for multiple Megami Tensei games and had been the director for Nocturne. Gaining Atlus' approval of the concept, development started in the same year, after the completion of Nocturne and the Digital Devil Saga duology.[113][114][115]Persona 3 was part of Atlus' push to expand their player base outside of Japan.[112] Ideas were being passed around about Persona 4, but the game did not begin official development until after the release of Persona 3.[104] Preparations for Persona 5's development began in 2010. The team decided to shift towards more challenging story themes, saying that the shift would be more drastic than that experienced with Persona 3.[116][117]Persona 4 Arena and its sequel were the first non-RPG collaborative project in the series: its success inspired the creation of both Persona Q and Dancing All Night.[118][119]

The first three Persona games were developed by Atlus' internal R&D1 studio, the studio responsible for the mainline Megami Tensei games.[120] Beginning with Persona 3, a dedicated team originally referred to as the 2nd Creative Production Department began handling development for the series. The team was later renamed P-Studio in 2012.[121][122][123] Hashino remained in charge of the studio until the Japanese release of Persona 5 in 2016, when he moved to found a new department, Studio Zero, to work on non-Persona projects.[124][125] Aside from Atlus, other developers have helped develop entries in the Persona series. During the pre-production stage of Persona 4 Arena, Hashino approached Arc System Works after being impressed by their work on the BlazBlue series.[24] For Dancing All Night, development was initially handled by Dingo, but due to quality concerns Atlus took over primary development with Dingo being retained as a supporting developer.[126]

Art design[edit]

The two character artists for the Persona series are Kazuma Kaneko, a central artist in the main Megami Tensei series who designed characters for the first three Persona games, and Shigenori Soejima, who worked in a secondary capacity alongside Kaneko and took Kaneko's place as the character designer from Persona 3 onwards.[98][129][130][131] While designing the characters for Persona, Kaneko was inspired by multiple notable celebrities and fictional characters of the time, along with members of Atlus staff. In Persona and Innocent Sin, the main characters all wore the same school uniforms, so Kaneko differentiated them using accessories.[98][129] For Eternal Punishment, the main cast were adults, so Kaneko needed to rethink his design procedure. Eventually, he adopted the concept of ordinary adults, and gave them designs that would stand out in-game.[108]

Soejima's first major work for the series was working on side characters for Persona 2 alongside Kaneko.[132] Kaneko put Soejima in charge of the series' art direction after Persona 2 as Kaneko did not want to imprint his drawing style on the Persona series, and also wanted Soejima to gain experience.[130] Soejima felt a degree of pressure when he was given his new role, as the series had accumulated a substantial following during Kaneko's tenure.[127] In a later interview, Soejima said that although he respected and admired Kaneko, he never consciously imitated the latter's work, and eventually settled into the role of pleasing the fans of the Persona series, approaching character designs with the idea of creating something new rather than referring back to Kaneko's work.[73] For his character designs, Soejima uses real people he has met or seen, looking at what their appearance says about their personality. If his designs come too close to the people he has seen, he does a rough sketch while keeping the personality of the person in mind.[131] For his work on Persona Q, his first time working with a deformed Chibi style due to its links with the Etrian Odyssey series, Soejima took into account what fans felt about the characters. A crucial part of his design technique was looking at what made a character stand out, then adjusting those features so they remained recognizable even with the redesign.[131][133]

Starting with Persona 3, each Persona game has been defined by a different aesthetic and key color. It is one of the first artistic decisions made by the team: Persona 3 has a dark atmosphere and serious characters, so the primary color was chosen as blue to reflect these and the urban setting. In contrast, Persona 4 has a lighter tone and characters but also sports a murder-mystery plot, so the color yellow was chosen to represent both the lighter tones and to evoke a "warning" signal.[131] According to Soejima, blue was the "color of adolescence", and yellow was the "color of happiness".[73] For Persona 5, the color chosen was red, to convey a harsh feeling in contrast to the previous Persona games and tie in with the game's story themes. Its art style was described as a natural evolution from where Persona 4 left off.[105][134]


The music of the Persona series has been handled by multiple composers. The one most associated with the series is Shoji Meguro, who began working on Persona shortly after he joined Atlus in 1995. His very first composition for the game was "Aria of the Soul", the theme for the velvet room that became a recurring track throughout the series.[135][136][137] During his initial work on the series, Meguro felt restricted by the limited storage space of the PlayStation's disc system, and so when he began composing for Persona 3, which allowed for sound streaming due to increased hardware capacity, he was able to fully express his musical style. His main worry for his music in Persona 3 and 4 was the singers' pronunciation of the English lyrics.[73] He was unable to work on the Persona 2 games as he was tied up with other projects, including Maken X.[138] Meguro also served as the lead composer in Persona 5, using elements of acid jazz and the game's themes for inspiration to achieve the right mood.[139] The music for Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment was handled by Toshiko Tasaki, Kenichi Tsuchiya, and Masaki Kurokawa. Tsuchiya had originally done minor work on Persona, and found composing for the games a strenuous experience.[140][141][142] Spin-offs, such as the Persona Q and Dancing subseries, are usually handled by other Atlus composers such as Atsushi Kitajoh, Toshiki Konishi, and Ryota Kozuka.[143]


The series consists of thirteen games, not counting re-releases and mobile games.[1]Persona was the first role-playing entry in the Megami Tensei franchise to be released outside of Japan, as previous entries had been considered ineligible due to possibly controversial content. As examples of this content were in a milder form for Persona, the restrictions did not apply.[144][145] According to Atlus, Persona and its sequel were to test player reactions to the Megami Tensei series outside of Japan.[120] The greater majority of Persona games were either first released on or exclusive to PlayStation platforms. This trend was broken with the release of Persona Q for the 3DS in 2014.[146] All the Persona games have been published by Atlus in Japan and North America.[120] An exception in Japan was the Windows port of Persona, which was published by ASCII Corporation.[3] After 2016, due to Atlus USA's merger with Sega of America, Sega took over North American publishing duties, although the Atlus brand remained intact.[147]

Due to the company not having a European branch, Atlus has generally given publishing duties to other third-party publishers with branches in Europe. This frequently results in a gap between North American and European release dates ranging from a few months to a year or more.[42][148][149] For Persona 3, Atlus gave publishing duties to Koei.[21] For Persona 4, European publishing was handled by Square Enix.[150]Persona 4 Arena was originally published in Europe by Zen United after a long delay, but the digital rights were eventually returned to Atlus, resulting in the game being removed from PSN.[148] Atlus ended up re-publishing the digital PlayStation version in Europe.[151] They had previously digitally published the PSP port of Persona in Europe and Australia.[6]Arena Ultimax was published in Europe by Sega, who had recently purchased Atlus' parent company. It was speculated that this could lead to a new trend that would shorten the release gap between North America and Europe.[42] A regular publishing partner was Ghostlight, whose relations with Atlus went back to the European release of Nocturne.[152][153] A more recent partner was NIS America, which published Persona 4 Golden, Persona Q, and Dancing All Night.[47][154][155] Atlus' partnership with NIS America ended in 2016, with NIS America citing difficulties with the company since its acquisition by Sega as reasons for the split. As part of their statement, NIS America said that Atlus had become "very picky" about European partners, selecting those which could offer the highest minimal sales guarantee on their products.[156] Sega of America and Atlus USA eventually entered into a partnership with European publishing company Deep Silver to publish multiple games in the region, including Persona 5.[157]


The localizations for the Persona series are generally handled by translator Yu Namba of Atlus USA, who also handles localization for multiple other Megami Tensei games.[85][158] Another prominent staff member was Nich Maragos, who worked with Namba on multiple Persona games until moving to Nintendo of America prior to 2015.[158][159] The localization of Persona was handled by a small team, which put a lot of pressure on them as they needed to adjust the game for Western audiences: the changes implemented included altering names, changing the appearance of characters, and removing numerous cultural references. An entire alternate main quest was also removed.[144][158][160] After Persona, it was decided that future Persona games should be as faithful as possible to their original releases.[158] Namba's first localization project for the series was Eternal Punishment.[161] For the release of Innocent Sin, there was a debate over whether to release it, as it contained potentially controversial content including allusions to Nazism.[158] In the end, due to staff and resource shortages, Innocent Sin was passed over for localization in favor of its sequel Eternal Punishment.[144] Later, when the company developed the PSP ports, the team released the ports of Persona and Innocent Sin overseas so fans attracted by Persona 3 and 4 would be able to easily catch up with the rest of the series. The localization for Persona was completely redone, reverting all the previous altered content and restoring all previously cut content.[144][160][162] The port of Eternal Punishment was not localized due to "unusual circumstances", so the company released the original version on PSN instead.[18]

For the localizations of Persona 3 and 4, the team incorporated as much of the original content as possible, such as using Japanese honorifics and keeping the game's currency as yen rather than changing it. As a general rule, they incorporate cultural elements from the original versions unless they would not be understood by the player, such as with certain jokes.[85] Nevertheless, some changes had to be made. In one instance, the character Mitsuru Kirijo was originally an English speaker, but her second language for the localized version was changed to French due to her cultured appearance. School tests also needed to be changed due to similar language-based issues.[158] The Social Links were originally called "Community",[Jp. 13] but this was changed as the word "Community" had a very specific meaning in English. The new name was inspired by the way the character Igor made reference to the concept using words such as "society" and "bonds".[163] Some in-game Easter egg references were also changed: in Persona 3 references to the larger Megami Tensei series by a character in an in-game MMORPG were changed to reference earlier Persona games, while mentions of a fictional detective in Persona 4 were altered to reference the Kuzunoha family from Eternal Punishment and the Devil Summoner series.[163] Character names have also needed adjustment, such as the stage name of Persona 4 character Rise Kujikawa, and the way characters referred to each other was adjusted to appeal more to a western audience.[163][164]Persona 5 was also localized in this fashion.[161]

The localized English names of games have also been altered. The banner title for Persona was changed from Megami Ibunroku to Revelations, principally because the team thought the latter name sounded "cool". The Revelations title was removed for Innocent Sin and Eternal Punishment. After the successful release of Nocturne, the "Shin Megami Tensei" moniker was added to the series title to help with Western marketing.[144] This has not been the case for some games: Persona 4 Arena's original title, Persona 4: The Ultimate in Mayonaka Arena, was shortened as it sounded "awkward", and the "Shin Megami Tensei" moniker was dropped as it would have made the title too long, which has been applied to every game in the series since.[28][163] The same change was made for Persona 4 Golden and Persona 5 Royal, with the team dropping "The" that was in the Japanese title because it would have sounded "odd" in English-speaking regions.[163]


As of June 2021, the series has sold over 15 million copies worldwide.[176] The first Persona was referred to at the time as a sleeper hit, and the success of it and Eternal Punishment helped establish both Atlus and Megami Tensei in North America. In Europe, the series did not become established prior to the release of Persona 3 and 4, both of which were highly successful in the region.[144][146][177] According to Atlus CEO Naoto Hiraoka, the main turning point for the franchise was the release of Persona 3, which was a commercial success and brought the series to the attention of the mainstream gaming community. Persona 4 received an even better reception. The Persona series' success has allowed Atlus to build a strong player base outside of Japan, contributing to the success of other games such as Catherine.[146][c]

The Persona series has been referred to as the most popular spin-off from the Megami Tensei franchise, gaining notoriety and success in its own right.[76][88][178]Io9's James Whitbrook commented that while "here in the west, we've got plenty of awesome urban fantasy, especially from a YA perspective. But what makes Persona interesting is that it's the familiar concept of Urban fantasy, the balance of the mundane "normal" life of the protagonists and the problems they have there with the fantastical nature of the supernatural world that lies beneath all that, from a Japanese perspective. Over here, that's much less common, and the way the series portrays urban fantasy through that lens is what makes it so different, especially from what you would normally expect from Japanese RPGs.".[88]Nintendo Power, in an article concerning the Megami Tensei series, cited the Persona series' "modern-day horror stories" and "teams of Japanese high-school kids" as the perfect example of the franchise.[179]Persona was mentioned in 1999 by GameSpot's Andrew Vestal as a game that deserved attention despite not aging well, saying "Examining Persona reveals three of the traits that make the series so popular - and unique - amongst RPG fans: demonology, negotiation, and psychology".[180] The game has been named as a cult classic.[144]Persona 3 was named by RPGamer as the greatest RPG of the past decade in 2009, and RPGFan listed Persona 3 and 4 in second and fourth place respectively in their similar 2011 list.[181][182]Persona 3 was listed by Gamasutra as one of the 20 essential RPGs for players of the genre.[183]Persona 4 was also listed by Famitsu as one of the greatest games of all time in a 2010 list.[184]

As well as gaining critical acclaim, the series has been the subject of controversy over its content. This controversy began with the localized banner title of the original Persona, which raised concerns due to its religious implications.[144] Kurt Katala, writing for in 2006 about the controversial content of the Megami Tensei franchise as a whole, mentioned Innocent Sin's references to homosexuality, schoolyard violence, and Nazism, considering them possible reasons why the game was not originally released outside of Japan.[185] In's 2007 game awards, which ran in the March 2008 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly, Persona 3 was given the "Most controversial game that created no controversy" award: the writers said "Rockstar's Hot Coffee sex scandal and Bully's boy-on-boy kissing's got nothing on this PS2 role-player's suicide-initiated battles or subplot involving student-teacher dating".[186]Persona 4 has in turn been examined by multiple sites over its portrayal of character sexuality and gender identity.[187][188][189]

Related media[edit]

The first anime adaptation of the Persona series, a television series titled Persona: Trinity Soul, aired in 2008. It was animated by A-1 Pictures, directed by Jun Matsumoto, written by a team that included Yasuyuki Muto, Shogo Yasukawa, and Shinsuke Onishi, and composed for by Taku Iwasaki. Its characters were designed by Soejima and Yuriko Ishii, while Persona designs were done by Nobuhiko Genma.[190][191] It was distributed internationally by NIS America.[192]Trinity Soul takes place in an alternate setting ten years after Persona 3, making it a non-canon entry in the franchise.[191][193] An anime adaptation of the original Persona 4, Persona 4: The Animation, aired in 2011. The 25-episode series was produced by AIC ASTA and directed by Seiji Kishi.[194][195] In 2014, a series based on Persona 4 Golden, titled Persona 4: The Golden Animation, was produced by A-1 Pictures. This series, which retains the cast of the original adaptation, dramatizes the new material included in Persona 4 Golden, focusing on the protagonist's encounters with new character Marie.[196][197] A standalone prequel anime created by A-1 Pictures, Persona 5 The Animation: The Day Breakers, was released in September 2016 prior to the Japanese release of the game.[198] A full anime series based on Persona 5, Persona 5: The Animation, aired in 2018.[199]

The original Persona 4 anime series was made into a condensed film adaptation titled Persona 4: The Animation - The Factor of Hope; it was released in Japanese cinemas in 2012.[200]Persona 3 has also been adapted into a series of anime films produced by AIC ASTA and featuring staff from Persona 4: The Animation, released in cinemas in Japan and licensed for release overseas by Aniplex.[201][202] The four films are titled #1 Spring of Birth, #2 Midsummer Knight's Dream, #3 Falling Down, and #4 Winter of Rebirth. They were released from 2013–2016.[203][204][205][206] For both Persona 4: The Animation and the Persona 3 film series, one of the main concerns was the portrayal of the lead characters, which were originally dictated by player actions.[207][208]

Persona was adapted into an eight-issue manga series titled Megami Ibunroku Persona, originally serialized in 1996 and later reissued in 2009.[209] A second spin-off manga, Persona: Tsumi to Batsu,[Jp. 14] was released to tie in with the release of the Persona 2 games. Set within the same setting of the Persona 2 games, it follows a separate story. In its 2011 reissue, new material was added that connected the manga to the events of Innocent Sin.[210]Persona 3, Persona 4, and Persona 5 have all received their own manga adaptations.[211][212][213][214] Another manga based on Persona Q was also serialized: two separate manga storylines, based on the two storylines featured in the game, were written and dubbed Side:P3 and Side:P4.[213][215] Multiple novels based on Persona 3 and 4 have also been released.[190][216][217]

Three stage plays based on Persona 3 have been produced under the banner Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade. They received limited runs and featured separate performances for the male and female versions of the game's protagonists. The three plays are titled Ao no Kakusei, Gunjō no Meikyū, and Sōen Kesshō.[218]Persona 4 was also adapted into two stage plays, both produced by Marvelous AQL and receiving limited runs in 2012: Visualive and Visualive the Evolution.[219][220] A stage play based on Persona 4 Arena was likewise given a limited run in December 2014,[221] and one based on Persona 4 Arena Ultimax ran in July 2016.[222]

Atlus has created or hosted media dedicated to the Persona series. A dedicated magazine originally ran for ten issues between 2011 and 2012, and has been irregularly revived since then.[223][224] An official talk show released on the official Persona website and Niconico, Persona Stalkers Club, began in February 2014. Hosted by freelance writer Mafia Kajita and actress Tomomi Isomura, it was designed to deepen the connection between Atlus and the Persona fanbase.[225] Concerts featuring music from the Persona series have also been performed, and some have received commercial releases on home media in Japan.[226][227] Action figures and merchandise such as clothing have also been produced.[228][229][230]

The series was also represented in the 2018 crossover fighting game Super Smash Bros. Ultimate with the April 2019 downloadable content (DLC) inclusion of Joker, the protagonist of Persona 5. Along with him, a Persona-themed stage, eleven musical tracks from the series, and Mii costumes of Morgana, Teddie, and the main protagonists from Persona 3 and 4 were also featured.[231]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ペルソナ, Perusona
  2. ^ペルソナ3 ザ・ナイト・ビフォア, Perusona Surī: Za Naito Bifoa
  3. ^ペルソナ アインソフ, Perusona Ain Sofu
  4. ^女神異聞録ペルソナ 異空の塔編, Megami Ibunroku Persona: Ikuu no Tou Hen
  5. ^ペルソナ2 罪 ロストメモリーズ, Perusona Tsū: Tsumi Rosuto Memorīzu
  6. ^ペルソナ2 罰 インフィニティマスク, Perusona Tsū: Batsu Infiniti Masuku
  7. ^ペルソナ3エム, Perusona Surī Emu
  9. ^ペルソナ3ソーシャル, Perusona Surī Sōsharu
  10. ^ペルソナ モバイル オンライン, Perusona Mobairu Onrain
  11. ^ペルソナ4 ザ・カードバトル, Perusona Fō Za Kādo Batoru
  12. ^女神異聞録, lit. "Goddess' Odyssey"
  13. ^コミュニティ, Komyuniti
  14. ^ペルソナ 罪と罰, lit. Persona: Sin and Punishment


  1. ^Other third-party companies such as Ghostlight and NIS America have published games in Europe. Sega began handling North American publishing duties in 2016 under the Atlus brand name.
  2. ^This game is generally referred to as Persona 1 or just Persona rather than by its full title.
  3. ^While primarily referring to and focusing on the European market, Hiraoka is speaking of the Persona series in general in the cited instances.


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  24. ^Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus USA. 2008. pp. 04–05.
  25. ^. Famitsu (in Japanese). Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  26. ^ abcdefghPersona 4 North American instruction manual. Atlus USA. 2008. pp. 5–28 (5–7, 10–11, 14–15, 19, 23, 25, 28). SLUS-21782B.
  27. ^ abRomano, Sal (November 16, 2016). "Persona 5 delayed to April 4 in the west, free Japanese voice-over DLC announced". Gematsu. Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  28. ^Cryer, Hirun (April 24, 2019). "Persona 5: The Royal Japanese Release Date Revealed, Features New Characters and Areas". USgamer. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  29. ^Purslow, Matt (April 24, 2019). "Persona 5 Royal Coming in 2020 With New Characters and a Third Semester". IGN. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  30. ^James, Thomas (February 5, 2015). "Persona 5 director discusses characters, themes, and development". Gematsu. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  31. ^Sato (September 20, 2015). "Persona 5's Fifth Party Member Introduced As Yusuke Kitagawa". Siliconera. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
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  37. ^"Summon the fighter within: Persona 4 Arena (360, PS3) coming to N.America this summer". Atlus. February 21, 2012. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  38. ^MacGregor, Kyle (May 22, 2014). "Sony removes Persona 4 Arena from European PSN". Destructoid. Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  39. ^MacGregor, Kyle (November 29, 2013). "Persona 4 Arena sequel strikes Japanese arcades". Destructoid. Archived from the original on June 15, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
  40. ^Sahdev, Ishaan (April 23, 2014). "Persona 4 Arena Ultimax Will Hit Japan On August 28th". Siliconera. Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
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  42. ^Yip, Spencer (June 20, 2014). "Persona Q: Shadow Of The Labyrinth's Story Is Canon". Siliconera. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  43. ^ (in Japanese). August 2, 2017. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
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  45. ^Romano, Sal (September 20, 2014). "Persona 4: Dancing All Night delayed to 2015". Gematsu. Archived from the original on April 12, 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
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  47. ^Bell, Alice (August 2, 2017). "Atlus announces rhythm games for Persona 5 and Persona 3". Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
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  57. ^ (in Japanese). Inside Games. March 3, 2008. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
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—Metis, Persona 3 FES

A Persona user (ペルソナ使い, Perusona tsukai)?, also sometimes stylized as Persona-user, is a being, usually human, who has the supernatural ability to summon their Persona. After they obtain their Personas their physical and mental abilities increase to superhuman levels. Some Persona users can summon multiple Personas with the Wild Card.




The protagonist and other Persona users summon their Personas by using their will alone. They were able to obtain their Personas by playing the Persona Game and meeting Philemon, who granted them their Personas. Maki Sonomura, Reiji Kido, Kumi Hirose, Michiko Matsudaira, and Yuriko Yamamoto are not mentioned as having played the Persona game or met Philemon.

According to the Persona World guide, Takahisa Kandori received his Persona from Nyarlathotep instead of Philemon. In the Megami Ibunroku Persona Club, Takeda's ability was awakened as a result of his strong desire to sing, which allowed him to meet Philemon.

Persona 2

Tatsuya Suou, Maya Amano and other Persona users summon their Personas by using their will alone.

Innocent Sin

When Tatsuya, Maya and their friends were younger they were able to obtain their Personas by playing a game similar to the Persona Game called Master Persona Incarnation. Ulala Serizawa was able to become a Persona user sometime in the past due to Maya playing it with her. The Masked Circle obtain their Personas by a different means by making a contract with Joker and by extension Nyarlathotep. The Masked Circle and the Shadow Selves of Tatsuya, Maya and his friends instead use Reverse Personas.

Eternal Punishment

Maya never played the Master Persona Incarnation with Tatsuya and his friends in the Other Side but eventually did so with Ulala in middle school. She was able to summon her Personas with Ulala and Katsuya when they are under attack by Demons. Katsuya Suou was able to summon his Personas by playing the Master Persona Incarnation with Tatsuya when they were younger. People who are infected by the Joker Curse obtain the Persona Joker and Persona users who are infected by the Joker Curse had their Personas overwritten into the Persona Joker. The Metal Trio are able to summon Personas similar to Reverse Personas. It is revealed that Randolph Carter is a Persona user.

Persona 3

The protagonist and other Persona users summon their Personas by using their Evokers. The Kirijo Group created two types of Persona users by creating the Anti-Shadow Suppression Weapons and Artificial Persona users to fight against Shadows. The Persona of the Anti-Shadow Suppression Weapons are created using a Plume of Dusk, while artificial Persona users are open to attack by their Personas due to their unnatural awakening. Persona 3 also shows that a dog can use a Persona.

Persona 4

The protagonist and other Persona users crush their Tarot Cards to summon their Personas. When an ordinary Shadow gains an ego, it is able to become a Persona user.

Persona 5

The protagonist and other Persona users rip away their masks to summon their Personas. Their first summoning is shown to be traumatic and their Personas were able to transform their users physically by giving them outfits that reflect their true selves.

List of Persona Users

Megami Ibunroku Persona

Megami Ibunroku Persona (Manga)

Megami Ibunroku Persona (Drama)

Persona 2: Innocent Sin

Persona 2: Eternal Punishment

Persona: Tsumi To Batsu

Persona 3 / FES / Portable

Persona 3: Shadow Cry

Persona Mobile Online

Persona -trinity soul-

Persona 4 / Golden

Persona 4 Arena / Ultimax

Persona x Detective Naoto

Persona 5 / Royal

Persona 5 Strikers

All Character's Persona Summons, Including Final Summon (Persona 4: Dancing All Night)

Persona 3

2006 video game

0000 video game

Persona 3

Japanese box art

Director(s)Katsura Hashino
Producer(s)Katsura Hashino
Programmer(s)Hirokazu Tohyama
Artist(s)Shigenori Soejima
  • Yuichiro Tanaka
  • Katsura Hashino
Composer(s)Shoji Meguro

July 13, 2006

  • PlayStation 2
    • JP: July 13, 2006
    • NA: August 14, 2007
    • EU: February 29, 2008
    • AU: March 6, 2008
    • JP: April 19, 2007
    • NA: April 22, 2008
    • EU: October 17, 2008
    • AU: November 13, 2008
    PlayStation Portable
    • JP: November 1, 2009
    • NA: July 6, 2010
    • EU: April 28, 2011
Genre(s)Role-playing, social simulation

Persona 3,[a] also known as Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3, is a 2006 role-playing video game developed by Atlus. It is the fourth installment in the Persona series, which is part of the larger Megami Tensei franchise. Atlus originally released the game for the PlayStation 2 in Japan in July 2006; the North American release of the game was delayed until 2007 due to issues with the publication of the official art book. Persona 3 FES, a director's cut version containing a new playable epilogue among other changes, was released in Japan in 2007 and worldwide the following year.

In Persona 3, the player takes the role of a high-school student who joins the Specialized Extracurricular Execution Squad (SEES), a group of students investigating the Dark Hour, a time period between one day and the next that few people are aware of. During the Dark Hour, the player enters Tartarus, a large tower containing Shadows, creatures that feed on the minds of humans. To fight the Shadows, each SEES member can summon a Persona, a manifestation of a person's inner self. The game's most iconic feature is how the members of SEES release their Personas: by firing a gun-like object called an Evoker at their head. In addition to the standard elements of role-playing games, Persona 3 includes elements of simulation games, as the game's protagonist progresses day by day through a school year, making friends and forming relationships that improve the strength of his Personas in battle.

The reception of Persona 3 was mainly positive; critics enjoyed its social elements, while some found its combat and environments repetitive. Persona 3 FES's epilogue was said to give narrative closure to the original game, although it was criticized for not featuring the simulation aspect of Persona 3. A PlayStation Portable version of Persona 3, titled Persona 3 Portable was released in Japan in November 2009, in North America in July 2010, and in Europe in April 2011. The PSP version adds the ability to play as a female protagonist, new story elements and music, and a new interface designed for the PSP. Two fighting games that continued the storyline of SEES, Persona 4 Arena and Persona 4 Arena Ultimax, were released in the early 2010s. Persona 3 has also seen related forms of media released, including a rhythm game spinoff, multiple soundtrack albums, musical concerts and radio dramas, a manga adaptation, an anime series, and an episodic animated film series.


A teenage boy with blue hair sits at a desk in his school's library, studying. The dialogue box in the lower third of the screen reads, "You managed to solve a difficult problem!" The top-right area of the screen denotes that the date is June 8, the current time period is "After School," and the moon is full.
The Protagonist gains academic skills by studying in the school library. The upper-right area of the screen indicates the current date, time period, and phase of the moon.

Persona 3 combines elements of traditional role-playing games and simulation games. The game follows the protagonist character, balancing their daily lives of going to school and building relationships with other people with fighting evil beings known as Shadows during the mysterious Dark Hour. Each day is divided between various time zones, the most common of which are "After School/Daytime" and "Evening." Except for scripted events, such as plot progression or special events, the player is free to choose how each day is spent, with most activities causing time to pass on. The types of activities and characters that can be interacted with vary depending on the day of the week and time of day. Additionally, some activities are limited by the protagonist's three attributes; Academics, Charm, and Courage, which can be built by performing various activities or making certain correct choices.[1][2] During the evening, players can choose to visit Tartarus, the game's main dungeon, where they can build their party's experience and gain new items. On the day of the full moon, players will participate in a boss battle to progress the story.[3]

Personas and Social Links[edit]

The main element of the game are the Personas, various creatures, and monsters which are associated with the Major Arcana of the Tarot.[4] Each Persona has its own set of strengths and weaknesses and possesses various abilities, ranging from offensive and support abilities to passive abilities that support the character. Whereas each of the game's main characters has their own Persona, some of which change form as the story progresses, the protagonist is capable of wielding multiple Personas, which can be switched between during battles.[5] New Personas can be created by visiting the Velvet Room and fusing together multiple Personas, passing along certain moves from the Personas used. The current level of the protagonist limits the Personas that a player can create.[5][6] Personas can also be obtained from Shuffle Time following battles, and previously obtained Personas can be summoned from the Persona Compendium for a fee.[6] The Velvet Room additionally allows players to take on quests, such as retrieving certain items, in order to obtain a reward.

New to the series are Social Links[b], bonds that are formed with several of the game's characters, with each Social Link representing a specific Major Arcana. By spending time with these characters, these Social Links increase in rank. When creating a Persona of a particular Arcana, an experience bonus is granted if that Arcana possesses a Social Link, with greater bonuses awarded depending on the rank. Carrying a Persona of a respective Arcana can help bring a Social Link closer to increasing in Rank. Maxing out a Social Link gives players the ability to create specific Personas of each Arcana. Conversely, negative actions, such as incorrect dialogue choices or dating multiple characters, can result in a Reversed Social Link, preventing players from summoning Personas of that Arcana until fixed. In the worst-case scenario, a Reversed Social Link can break, effectively removing all Personas of that Arcana from the game.

Tartarus and Combat[edit]

Four of the game's playable characters surrounds a group of three enemies. The camera is centered behind the Protagonist, who is wielding a sword. A wheel-shaped menu of icons in the lower-left corner of the screen indicate available battle commands.
A typical battle in Persona 3. The portraits on the right-hand side of the screen indicate the status of the player's party.

Tartarus is the game's main dungeon, which can be visited during the evening, provided the conditions allow it (e.g. the absence of some characters may prevent the player from visiting Tartarus that night).[7] The player may order the other party members to split up to explore the area, or automatically attack Shadows on sight. Players will eventually come across boss floors, in which the player must defeat powerful Shadows to continue their progress. Additionally, certain floors halt further progress through the tower until the story progresses.[8] Occasionally, innocent civilians will wander into Tartarus, winding up on certain floors. Rescuing these civilians safely before a full moon appears grants bonus rewards obtained from the police station. Spending too much time in Tartarus may cause characters to become "Tired" or "Sick," which can affect their performance during battle. Additionally, if the protagonist becomes Tired or Sick, some activities, such as studying at night, may be hampered. Players can recover their status by taking certain items, visiting the infirmary, or going to bed early.[8]

Battle occurs when the player comes into contact with a Shadow roaming the floor, with the battle party consisting of whoever is nearby. Attacking the Shadow without being noticed will give the player an advantage, whilst the enemy gains an advantage if the player is attacked first.[9] Battles use the "Press Turn" system, in which both allies and enemies take turns to attack using weapons, items, or Persona abilities.[4] Using the Tactics option, the player can assign specific battle AI to each party member (in Persona 3 Portable, they may also choose to issue direct commands).[10] Offensive attacks are divided into three physical types; Strike, Slash, and Pierce, and six elements; Fire, Ice, Electricity, Wind, Light, and Dark, attributes of which both Personas and Shadows may possess strengths and weaknesses against. Physical abilities use up HP whilst elemental and support magic use SP. By exploiting an enemy's weakness or performing a critical attack, characters can knock the opponent down, granting that character an extra turn. However, enemies can also take advantage of an ally's weakness to gain an additional turn.[7] If the player manages to knock all opponents down, they may be granted the opportunity to perform an All-Out Attack, in which all able party members assault the enemies for massive damage.[4] Allies who lose all of their HP can be revived using revival items and abilities, but the game will end if the protagonist loses all of their HP.

When a battle is won, players gain experience points that are divided amongst the party members. Earning enough experience allows Personas to increase in level, granting improved stats and new abilities.[5] Some Personas may also grant Skill Cards, which can be given to other Personas to teach them new abilities. In addition, raising the protagonist's level will allow higher-level Personas to be summoned in the Velvet Room and allow the player to carry more Personas. At the end of certain battles, a minigame known as Shuffle Time may appear, in which players select a card from a set that is shuffled around. These can grant bonuses, such as additional experience points, cash, restore health, or give the player new Personas. However, selecting a cursed card will cause an extremely powerful monster, Death or better known as the Reaper, to appear on the current floor.



The story of Persona 3 takes place in 2009 and is set in a Japanese city called Iwatodai[c], built and funded by the Kirijo Corporation. Several experiments carried out ten years ago created the Dark Hour[d], a period of time that exists between one day and the next.[11] During this time, most people turned into coffins, and they are not aware of the Dark Hour; however, there is a select group of people who are.[11] The Dark Hour bends reality; Gekkoukan High School, where most of the characters attend school during the day, becomes a huge labyrinthine tower called Tartarus, and beasts known as Shadows roam the area, preying on the minds of those still conscious.[7] The Shadows leave their victims in near-catatonic states outside of the Dark Hour.[12] To investigate and learn about the Dark Hour, Shadows, and Tartarus, the "Specialized Extracurricular Execution Squad," or SEES, was created. SEES is a group of high-schoolers capable of summoning beings known as Personas to combat Shadows.[7] The Persona 3 instruction manual describes Persona's being "a second soul that dwells deep within a person's heart. It is an entirely different personality that emerges when a person is confronted with something from outside this world."[11] Persona-users usually summon their Persona by firing a gun-like object called an Evoker at their head.[3] An effect that appears to be broken glass comes from the user's head when the Evoker is used.


Main article: List of Persona 3 characters

The main character of Persona 3 is a silent protagonist named by the player at the start of the game.[13] He is a teenage boy, orphaned as a child, returning to the city he grew up in ten years before attending Gekkoukan High School.[11] After learning of his ability to summon a Persona, he joins SEES, which is composed of students at his school: Yukari Takeba, a popular, cheerful girl; Akihiko Sanada, a calm and collected senior who leads the school's boxing team; and Mitsuru Kirijo, the Student Council President and daughter of the head of the Kirijo Group, who provides backup during battle.[14] As the game progresses, SEES gains several new members: Junpei Iori, a class clown and the Protagonist's best friend;[14] Fuuka Yamagishi, a shy girl who replaces Mitsuru as a support character; Aigis, a female android designed by the Kirijo Group to fight Shadows;[15] Ken Amada, an elementary schooler whose mother was killed by a Persona-user;[16] Shinjiro Aragaki, a former member of SEES who quit due to past events;[17] and Koromaru, a dog capable of summoning a Persona.[18]


Persona 3 begins with the Protagonist transferring to Gekkoukan High School and moving into a dorm in the city.[11] After learning his ability to summon a Persona, he is asked to join SEES and is eventually elected its leader in combat. Additional members join SEES over time, all students attending Gekkoukan: Junpei, who had only recently discovered his ability to summon a Persona; Akihiko, whose arm injury prevented him from fighting; and Fuuka, who replaces Mitsuru as the team's support member. After awakening to his Persona ability, the Protagonist is transported to the Velvet Room, which its proprietor, Igor, says is a realm between "dream and reality."[19] Igor explains to him that his Persona ability is special: he is the only member of SEES capable of wielding multiple Personas in battle.[20] In-game, the Velvet Room is where the player may fuse two or more Personas to create a new one. Igor also encourages the Protagonist to meet people and form bonds with them, known as Social Links. According to Igor, the power of his Social Links will determine his potential in combat.[21]

On nights when the moon is full, the city is attacked by a Shadow more powerful than the ones found in Tartarus. After several of these incidents, Mitsuru is forced to reveal to the team the origin of Tartarus and the Dark Hour. Ten years earlier, the Kirijo Group, a research company founded by Mitsuru's grandfather, began amassing and containing Shadows. They studied and performed experiments on them to harness their power. However, the experiments went awry, allowing the Shadows to escape and assemble into twelve larger creatures.[22] Each is affiliated with one of the twelve Major Arcana. SEES' leader, Shuji Ikutsuki, informs them that if they were to defeat all twelve of the greater Shadows, Tartarus and the Dark Hour would disappear forever.[23]

As the year continues, the group adds two more Persona-users to their team: Ken and Koromaru. While vacationing in Yakushima, Junpei, Akihiko, and the Protagonist encounter Aigis, who had recently escaped the laboratory where she was kept, despite being deactivated for years.[24] For reasons she cannot explain, she has a need to be near the Protagonist, even breaking into his dorm room at night to monitor him.[25] Aigis is also enlisted in SEES. After defeating the twelfth and final Shadow, SEES learns that Shuji Ikutsuki had misled them. By destroying the greater Shadows, they have freed parts of a being known as Nyx, which will bring about the end of the world if it is fully restored.[26] Nyx, or the "maternal being," is the creator of Shadows; she is drawn to Earth by The Appriser, or "Death," a Shadow of the Death arcanum. SEES encounters The Appriser disguised as Ryoji Mochizuki, a recent transfer student to Gekkoukan High School.[27]

The Shadow experiments performed ten years earlier created the Death Shadow, albeit in an incomplete state.[28] Aigis, unable to defeat the Shadow, sealed it inside the Protagonist, who was a child at the time.[29] By defeating the twelve greater Shadows, the Death Shadow was recreated. Its purpose is to usher Nyx into the world, which will bring about the extinction of all life on Earth. Ryoji insists that Nyx cannot be defeated; however, he offers SEES an alternative. If they were to kill him, their memories of the Dark Hour and Tartarus would vanish, allowing them to continue life unaware of their impending death.[30] Aigis, who now realizes why she wanted to protect the Protagonist, begins to believe that she is useless.[31] She urges SEES to kill Ryoji, as they cannot defeat Nyx. Through encouragement from her friends, however, she gains the resolve to join with SEES as they attempt to fight Nyx.[32]

On December 31, New Year's Eve, the player must decide whether to kill Ryoji or spare his life. If the protagonist kills him, the game cuts to Graduation Day, with the entirety of SEES (barring Aigis) losing their memories of the Dark Hour and the Shadows, ending on a dark note as they prepare to celebrate in blissful ignorance until Nyx inevitably brings about The Fall and all of humanity dies. If he is spared, then the game continues, and on January 31, SEES ascends to the roof of Tartarus to face Ryoji, who has transformed into the Nyx Avatar.[33] While they can defeat him, Nyx continues to descend to Earth. As this is happening, the Protagonist is summoned to the Velvet Room, where Igor reminds him that the power of his Social Links would determine his potential. The Protagonist hears the voices of his friends encouraging him. The strength of his Social Links grants him the power of the "Universe," allowing him to seal away Nyx from humanity.[34] The world returns to normal, though the memories of the past year related to the Dark Hour are lost to the members of SEES. However, Aigis and the Protagonist do remember. On Graduation Day, the two go to the school's roof, where the members of SEES had promised to meet should they stop Nyx and live to see their graduation. As Mitsuru gives her graduation speech, she and the rest of SEES suddenly regain their memories, and the group rushes to the roof to fulfill the promise they all made. It is here that Aigis thanks the Protagonist for giving her a purpose in life: protecting him.[35]

The Answer[edit]

The events of The Answer begin on March 31, shortly after the end of the original game. During the opening sequence, it is revealed that the Protagonist has died;[36] the other characters speculate that his death is related to him defeating Nyx.[37] The school year has ended, and the dorm is to be closed down soon. Aigis reveals to the group that she will not be attending school next year.[38] During their last dinner party, the SEES members discover that they are trapped in their dorm and that the day March 31 is repeating itself.[39] Later, a large door-like hole opens in the dorm floor, and SEES is attacked by Metis, an anti-shadow weapon similar to Aigis. In the midst of fighting Metis to protect her friends, Aigis's Persona, Athena, transforms into Orpheus, the original Persona of the Protagonist. She also gains the Protagonist's Wild Card ability.[40] Aigis can subdue Metis, whose actions were an attempt to end the time skip and save Aigis, who she calls her "sister."[41][42]

Underneath the dorm is the Abyss of Time, the cause of the time skip. The Abyss contains seven doors, the insides of which contain multi-floor dungeons, similar in design to Tartarus; in these areas, the game's combat occurs.[43] At the bottom of each dungeon, the characters witness an event from the past of a member of SEES. After seeing several of these flashbacks, the characters discern that the event shown in each door relates to how that person had awakened to their Persona.[44] At the bottom of the seventh and final door, SEES fights a Shadow-like version of the Protagonist. After defeating it, each of them obtains a key. By combining the keys, they would be able to end the time skip and leave the dorm.[45] However, Metis presents SEES with an alternative: instead of unlocking the front door of the dorm, they may also use the keys to travel back in time, to before the fight against Nyx and the death of the Protagonist.[46] Now unable to agree on how to use the keys, the characters determine that they must fight each other to decide; Yukari and Mitsuru wish to travel back in time and save the Protagonist from his fate, Akihiko and Ken wish to honor his sacrifice and leave the dorm, while Junpei and Koromaru intend to act as a neutral party and hold the keys until the others can make a rational decision.[47] Aigis, Fuuka, and Metis claim all eight keys, which fuse into the Final Key. After debating on what to do now, they discover a third, new door in the Abyss of Time, which the group uses (without the Final Key) to travel to the moment the Protagonist sealed Nyx from the world.[48]

Metis explains that the purpose of the seal created by the Protagonist was not to seal away Nyx herself (who is not inherently evil) but to prevent humanity's despair from calling out to Nyx and bringing about the Fall once more. The subconscious will of humankind to despair and wish for death constantly rebirths a monster called Erebus that summons Nyx to destroy the world; Metis implies that Erebus's contact with Nyx is what caused the Fall (that was prevented by SEES).[49] SEES realizes that the wishes that created Erebus also came from them, and so they fight it and can defeat it.[50] Mitsuru points out that Erebus will return, as humans will never stop wishing for death.[51] After breaking the time skip and exiting through the front door of the dorm with the Final Key, Metis, Aigis, and the rest of SEES are summoned to the Velvet Room, much to Igor's (pleasant) surprise.[52] It is here they learn of Metis's true origins: that she is a manifestation of a part of Aigis's personality. Distraught over the Protagonist's death, she no longer wanted to live like a human and wished to return to being a machine.[53] However, after being set free from the Abyss of Time, Aigis changes her mind, deciding to continue to attend school, something she had chosen not to do earlier.[54]


Two male and one female student stand in a classroom. Behind and above the Protagonist, who stands at the center, is the Persona Thanatos, a humanoid demon with eight coffins attached to its body via chains.
A Japanese ad for Persona 3, created by the game's art director, Shigenori Soejima. The ad "contains three important game elements: school, Persona, and friendship."[55]

Persona 3 began development in 2003, after the completion of Shin Megami Tensei: Nocturne and Digital Devil Saga.[56] In March 2006, the first details on Persona 3 were unveiled in the Japanese gaming magazine Famitsū.[57] In addition to announcing the game's Japanese release date of July 13, the three-page article detailed the game's premise, combat systems, and the Social Link system (known as "Community" in the Japanese version). It also profiled three characters—the Protagonist, Junpei, and Yukari—as well as their respective Personas: Orpheus, Hermes and Io.[58]

The main character artist and art director for Persona 3 was Shigenori Soejima.[59] Character artist for the previous Persona titles, Kazuma Kaneko, gave the job to Soejima so he could gain more experience.[60] Soejima felt a degree of pressure when designing the characters as he did not want to disappoint the series' fanbase. The goal was to make players of the Megami Tensei series feel gratified that they had supported the Persona series. In an interview, Soejima compared the game's aesthetic and style to a fantastical manga, citing its use of mecha-like Persona and Mitsuru's flamboyant styling. Soejima returned to design the character Metis for FES.[59] The user interface was designed to stand out during the game's marketing, with its blue-colored design intended to evoke a cool and stylish atmosphere.[61] The anime cutscenes for Persona 3 and FES were animated by animation production company Point Pictures.[62]

In an interview with the magazine Play, lead director for Persona 3Katsura Hashino discussed why the decision was made to have party members be directed by an artificial intelligence: "I think it's more fun to have the party members controlled by their AI, so each member's characteristics and personality are on vivid display. There were no objections raised among the Persona 3 development team, either." He also notes that the system "wasn't well received" by players of the game.[63] Later, the use of AI for the secondary party members was described as a stylistic choice representing the game's theme of conquering the fear of death through "bonds": each character was their own person, and the player could only influence things by interacting with them.[64]Persona 3 does not include the negotiation elements of previous Persona or Megami Tensei games, which allowed players to talk to enemies during a battle to recruit them, earn money, or obtain items. However, the social elements of Persona 3 (and its successor, Persona 4) are considered the equivalent of the negotiation system by the development team. Maragos said in a interview that "negotiation isn't gone...And [it] still factors into Persona Fusion; it's still a big part of the game. I feel like it's disguised, but it's there."[65]


The localization of Persona 3 was handled by Yu Namba and Nich Maragos. During this process, the team worked to leave as much of the original Japanese content intact, continuing a trend started with Persona 2: Eternal Punishment. One of the ideas had by the team for Persona 3 was to use it as a medium for introducing Japanese culture to a western audience.[66][67] While localizing Persona 3 for English-speaking countries, the honorifics used by the characters in the original Japanese script were retained. According to Maragos, their use "[added] so much more meaning to the text".[65] In an interview with RPGamer, project editor Yu Namba explained that during the process of translation, some of the Japanese humor, "things that made absolutely no sense in western culture…were replaced with jokes that at least somewhat parallel the originals."[68] One of the changes that needed to be made was to the school tests, which were based around questions on the English language. A similar change was Mitsuru's second language: in the original version it was English, but for the localized version her second language was changed to French. This choice was influenced by her cultured appearance. In addition, in-game references to the original Shin Megami Tensei were altered to references to Persona 2.[66][67]


The soundtrack for Persona 3 was composed entirely by Shoji Meguro, with the sole exception of "Adventured Act", which was composed by Yosuke Uda.[69] It was released as a two disc soundtrack in Japan by Aniplex on July 19, 2006. A selection of tracks from the full soundtrack was bundled with the North American release of the game.[70] An arranged album, titled Burn My Dread -Reincarnation: Persona 3-, was also released in Japan by Aniplex on April 18, 2007. It contains eleven arrangements of tracks from Persona 3, as well as an extended version of the song "Burn My Dread."[71] Meguro stated that the development of Persona 3 was one of his first opportunities to fully realize his music in video games. The soundtrack features a high use of vocals, though Meguro did not consider this as special or exceptional. A tune from previous Persona titles he rearranged was "Aria of the Soul", the theme of the Velvet Room. The game's battle theme, "Mass Destruction", was originally just a prototype, but the reception to it was so positive that it went into the final game.[72] In the past, the hardware limitations of the original PlayStation required him to compose music in 100-200 kilobyte samples, which he felt made the music sound "pretty cheap". The move to the PlayStation 2 allowed for real-time streaming of music. Meguro considers this "the point at which [he] was finally able to express [his] music without making any compromises". He was also worried about the pronunciation of the English lyrics.[73]

Meguro returned to compose new music for Persona 3:FES. Released in Japan by Aniplex on May 3, 2007, the soundtrack contained the original score for FES, as well as arrangements of music from earlier games in the Persona series.[74] "The Snow Queen", composed by Kenichi Tsuchiya, is a remix of the theme in Revelations: Persona. "Maya's Theme", composed by Kenichi Tsuchiya, and "Time Castle", composed by Toshiko Tasaki, are remixes of tracks from Persona 2: Innocent Sin.[75]Persona 3 Portable contains new background music, which can be heard if the player chooses to control the game's new female protagonist.[76] The game's official soundtrack was released in Japan by Aniplex on November 25, 2009.[77]

Promotion and release[edit]

The North American release of Persona 3 shipped as a collector's edition box containing the game, a soundtrack disc, and a 52-page art book. The game was originally scheduled to release on July 24, 2007. However, Atlus encountered a problem with manufacturing the artbook several days before the intended ship date. Instead of shipping the game without the book, the company decided to push its release back three weeks, to August 14. Atlus issued a press release explaining that they were delaying the game to maintain the quality of the package, which would have been "irreparably compromised" if they had "revise[d] or abandon[ed] the deluxe package."[78]

Persona 3 FES[edit]

Persona 3 FES[e] is an add-on disc for Persona 3 containing updates to the original game, as well as a new epilogue in which the player controls Aigis. FES was released in Japan on April 19, 2007, as both a stand-alone game and the "director's cut" version of Persona 3. Overseas, the combined edition was published in North America by Atlus USA on April 22, 2008, and in Europe by Koei on October 17, 2008.[citation needed] According to the game's director, Katsura Hashino, the subtitle "Fes" is derived from the word "festival".[79] This version of the game was re-released as a PS2 Classic on PSN for the PlayStation 3 in 2012. Players of the original Persona 3 are given the option of transferring certain data from the original version's save file, such as the player's compendium, social-related stats, and maxed Social Link items.

Persona 3 FES was first released alongside the original game in two forms: the "Regular Edition" — containing both the "director's cut" version of Persona 3, and the new epilogue — as two separate discs, and the "Append Edition", containing only the epilogue, on a single disc.[80]Persona 3 and its expansion were released simultaneously in Japan on April 19, 2007. At the time, Atlus had not announced plans to release FES outside Japan.[68] This announcement did not come until February 2008, when the game's North American release date was revealed to be April 22, 2008.[81] An exclusive limited edition bundle was released on November 28, 2008, containing Art of Persona 3 artbook, Persona 3 soundtrack disc and the FES edition in a cardboard sleeve.[82] The FES edition of the game was also released on PSN on April 10, 2012.[83]

The expansion to Persona 3, in addition to adding new content to the main game (referred to as "The Journey," or "Episode Yourself" in the Japanese version), includes an epilogue to the original story titled "The Answer" ("Episode Aegis" in the Japanese version). The core gameplay of The Answer is similar to that of The Journey, although the Social Link system has been removed, and the player does not attend school.[39]

Persona 3 Portable[edit]

Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 Portable[f], an enhanced port of Persona 3 for the PlayStation Portable, was released in Japan on November 1, 2009,[84] and released in North America on July 6, 2010.[85] It came out to most of Europe on April 29, 2011 and the UK on April 28, 2011. The announcement in Famitsū revealed that the player would have the option to play as a female character. This selection alters some aspects of the story: the first Persona gained by the Protagonist, Orpheus, has a different appearance; Igor's assistant in the Velvet Room, Elizabeth, can be replaced with a male equivalent named Theodore.[86] The gender choice also alters some aspects of the Social Link stories. In addition to the new playable character, there are two new difficulty levels to select from alongside the original game's three. Persona 3 Portable only includes the story of the original Persona 3;[87] however, general changes have been made to the plot, regardless of character choice.[84]

The game's revised battle system draws on elements added in Persona 3's successor, Persona 4. In combat, the player is able to directly control every character, as an alternative to utilizing the game's artificial intelligence. The ability to guard has been added, and allies will take fatal attacks for the Protagonist, preventing their death.[86] Outside of Tartarus, instead of navigating the game world by directly controlling the Protagonist, the player guides an on-screen cursor around an area, allowing interaction with characters and objects. The game includes the voice acting of the original game, although characters are not shown in the world, instead being represented by on-screen portraits. In addition, the anime cutscenes seen in the original Persona 3 were replaced to feature in-game graphics.[76]Shoji Meguro composed 10 new musical tracks for Persona 3 Portable; with the majority of them being written for the female protagonist's playthrough.[76] Several cameos of characters from Persona 4 have been added to Persona 3 Portable, including Yukiko Amagi, a playable character from Persona 4.[88] It also features a cameo from Vincent Brooks, the protagonist of Catherine.[89]

Persona 3 Portable was released as a stand-alone game and as part of a bundle package, which includes a T-shirt and desk calendar.[90] The game on its own retails for 6,279 yen (US$68), while the bundle (known as Persona 3 Portable DX) sells for 8,495 yen (US$92).[91] During the North American release, Atlus offered Junpei's hat as a pre-order bonus for purchasing "Persona 3 Portable".[92]




Persona 3 received positive reviews upon its release, earning a Metacritic score of 86.[102] Shane Bettenhausen of called the game a "refreshingly new take on the MegaTen [Megami Tensei] concept", and "the best RPG hitting the PS2 this year." He praised the "excellent" AI created to direct the actions of party members during battle, which he felt created "the series' speediest and most dynamic battle system to date."[93] Jeff Haynes from IGN criticized the system, finding that it would occasionally result in the death of the player's character, which causes a game over.[7]

GameTrailers called the game "a rare supernatural delicacy", stating it is an RPG that fans of the genre shouldn't miss out on. GameSpy's Patrick Joynt praised the social elements of Persona 3, calling the game's Social Links "almost universally fascinating." While he suspected the simulation elements would "probably be the biggest hurdle" for fans of role-playing or Megami Tensei games, in his review, he wrote that he "can't stress enough how well-done it is."[99] Heidi Kemps of GamesRadar found the game's teenage themes to be "a refreshing change" from those of other games in the genre, as they touch on "the social awkwardness common at that point in life."[95]Game Informer's Joe Juba found the game's environments to be weak, as "most of the game takes place within one tower [Tartarus]." In his review, he also noted that the game's roots in the Megami Tensei series would come across as foreign to new players. "If you don't know anything about fusing Personas, or simply that 'bufu' means 'ice attack,' you have some catching up to do."[96]

Persona 3: FES received a score of 89 on Metacritic, slightly higher than that of Persona 3.[103] The plot of The Answer provides "much-needed narrative closure" to the story of The Journey, according to Shane Bettenhausen.[94] Kevin VanOrd called FES a "wonderfully enhanced version of an already-great RPG"; in his review, he recommends the game to new players and those who had already finished the original game.[39] The gameplay of The Answer was criticized by several reviewers for not including the social elements of the original game.[39][43][100] VanOrd found the new chapter to be "less interesting" because of this. Jeff Haynes commented that the change "harkens back to a classic, more hardcore RPG experience of fighting and grinding", while done at the expense of what "made Persona 3 so intriguing in the first place."[43] The reviews of GameSpy and IGN reiterated issues found with the original game, such as the inability to directly control party members in battle.[43][100]

While some critics like IGN criticized Persona 3 Portable for "losing some of its polish", it was as acclaimed as FES, receiving an 89 out of 100 from Metacritic,[104] making it the third best reviewed PSP game on the website.[110] It was praised for, despite having been released twice already, being an adventure worth playing again. This was echoed by GamesRadar, IGN, and GamePro.[104] One of the reviewers from Famitsu wrote that the remake includes "enough differences in the Social Links to make it fun even for old players.",[98] and perfect scores from websites such as Destructoid[111] and GamePro.[112]GameTrailers went on to nominate the game for "Best PSP Game" in their awards, losing to God of War: Ghost of Sparta[113] and "Best RPG", losing to Mass Effect 2.[114] Three websites specific to coverage of RPGs honored it in annual award postings, namely RPGamer (Best Re-release),[115] RPGFan (Best Traditional RPG on Handheld),[116] and RPGLand (Best Port).[117]

Shane Bettenhausen considered the inclusion of Evokers "a ballsy and shocking move" on the part of Atlus, but felt their inclusion created "an edgy sensibility that fits perfectly with the overall dark tone" of the game.[93] Similarly, Joe Juba thought the concept fit "perfectly" with the game's "dark tone".[96] Jeff Haynes found the animations of characters using their Evokers to be "intriguing and shocking at the same time".[7] While previewing Persona 3 for GameSpot, Kevin VanOrd said that the continued use of Evokers "never gets old and it never gets any less awesome to watch, and considering that you could play this for fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty hours or more, that's saying something."[118] Atlus USA did not remove the Evokers from Persona 3 for its worldwide release, despite the possible controversy. Nich Maragos from the localization team said on's Retronauts podcast that the company did not receive any criticism for their inclusion. "There was never any Jack Thompson-ing…we didn't get any letters from concerned parents."[119]

Sales and accolades[edit]

Persona 3 sold 127,472 copies in its first week and 210,319 copies overall in Japan by 2008.[120][121]Persona 3 Portable sold over 158,000 copies in Japan within its first month of release.[122][123][124][125]

Persona 3 was named the best role-playing game of 2006 by Famitsu,[105] and of 2007 by GameSpot and RPGFan.[106][109] GameSpy gave the title its 2007 PS2 RPG of the Year award and placed it second in the 2007 PS2 Top 10 Games of the Year.[107][126]IGN placed Persona 3 FES fifteenth in their feature "The Top 25 PS2 Games of All Time".[127]'s 2007 game awards, which ran in the March 2008 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly, included Persona 3, given the award for "Most controversial game that created no controversy".[128] In 2010, Persona 3 ended up coming first place in RPGamer's "Top RPGs of the Decade" list,[108] and second place in RPGFan's "Top 20 RPGs of the Past Decade" list behind Shin Megami Tensei: Digital Devil Saga & Digital Devil Saga 2.[129] According to IGN's Top 100 RPGs of All Time, Persona 3 ranks 69th.[130]

Persona 3 was nominated for Best RPG at 2007 Spike Video Game Awards, but lost to Mass Effect.


Spin-offs and tie-ins[edit]

Main articles: Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth, Persona 3: Dancing in Moonlight, and Persona Q2: New Cinema Labyrinth

Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth is a dungeon crawler RPG developed for the Nintendo 3DS. It features both the characters from Persona 3 and the ones from Persona 4 and includes some gameplay elements from the Etrian Odyssey series. The Persona 3 campaign starts two weeks before October 4. Just as SEES prepares to enter Tartarus that night, they are pulled into the Velvet Room and sent to a school they have never seen before. While searching the area, they meet the amnesiacs Zen and Rei and the Investigation Team, the latter of whom have also been pulled into the strange school: they must now work together to escape. The game was released in Japan on June 5, 2014, North America on November 25, 2014, and Europe on November 28, 2014.

A rhythm game based on the setting and characters of Persona 3, titled Persona 3: Dancing in Moonlight, was released for the PlayStation 4 and PlayStation Vita in Japan on May 2018 and worldwide in December 2018, alongside Persona 5: Dancing in Starlight.[131][132][133]

Persona Q2: New Cinema Labyrinth serves as a sequel to Persona Q. The game was released for the Nintendo 3DS in Japan on November 29, 2018, and worldwide on June 4, 2019. The game retains the casts from Persona 3 and Persona 4, joined by the Phantom Thieves of Hearts from Persona 5 and the female protagonist from Persona 3 Portable.

Related media[edit]


Several figurines of the characters have been produced by Kotobukiya, a Japanese collectible toy company. They include the Protagonist of the game, Aigis, Mitsuru, and Akihiko.[134] The figurines have interchangeable parts, such as an Evoker or weapon, which can be stored in the base. Alter, another Japanese company that specializes in collectibles, has also released 1:8 scale figurines of Elizabeth, Aigis, and Mitsuru.[135][136][137] The headphones worn by the Protagonist are sold by Audio-Technica, model ATH-EM700(Japan-only version).[138] Atlus collaborated with the Japanese publishing company Enterbrain to publish the game's multiple strategy guides and an artbook detailing character and setting designs.[citation needed]


A manga adaptation of Persona 3 written and illustrated by Shūji Sogabe was published monthly in the Japanese magazine Dengeki Maoh until it went on hiatus once Persona 4 was released. However, it began serialization again starting November 7, 2011, moving from Dengeki Maoh to Atlus's official Persona Magazine.[139][140] As of February 2017, 11 volumes have been released.[141]


See also: Persona: Trinity Soul and list of episodes

A non-canonical spin-off anime to Persona 3 titled Persona: Trinity Soul aired in Japan starting in January 2008 and ran for twenty-six episodes. Taking place ten years after the events of the game, the anime features Akihiko as a secondary character.[142]NIS America licensed the show and released it in two half-season deluxe edition box sets with the original Japanese audio track in 2010.[143]


See also: Persona 3 The Movie: No. 1, Spring of Birth; Persona 3 The Movie: No. 2, Midsummer Knight's Dream; Persona 3 The Movie: No. 3, Falling Down; and Persona 3 The Movie: No. 4, Winter of Rebirth

In June 2012, it was announced that Persona 3 would receive a four-part film series adaptation.[144] It was produced by AIC ASTA (first film) and A-1 Pictures (films two through four). The first film was directed by Noriaki Akitaya, the second and fourth by Tomohisa Taguchi, and the third by Keitaro Motonaga. The main Japanese voice actors from the original game reprised their roles in the film series.[145]

Radio drama[edit]

Several series of radio dramas based on Persona 3 and Persona 3: FES have been released in Japan. Persona 3 Drama CD: A Certain Day of Summer features an original story voiced by the game's original cast.[146]Persona 3 Drama CD Vol. 2 -Moonlight- links the story of Persona 3 and the epilogue released with Persona 3: FES.[147] From February to June 2008, a series of character dramas were released as five CDs. The volumes respectively focus on the Protagonist and Ryoji;[148] Junpei and Chidori;[149] Fuuka, Ken, and Aigis;[150] Yukari and Mitsuru;[151] and Akihiko, Shinjiro, and Koromaru.[152] In early 2009, a two-volume side story about Mitsuru was released.[153][154]

Stage production[edit]

See also: Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade

Persona 3 was adapted into five live stage musicals, with the first one performed in 2014. The series of plays were first announced in August 2013[155] and were written by Kumagai and Kotora Kagurazuka, with music by Meguro. The plays included separate shows for both the male and female protagonists, who were named Sakuya Shiomi and Kotone Shiomi, and had minor dialogue and scenes unique to each protagonist.[156] The plays starred Shouta Aoi as Sakuya, Kana Asumi as Kotone, Maho Tomita as Yukari, Genki Okawa as Junpei, Yuki Fujiwara as Akihiko, Asami Tano as Mitsuru, Marina Tanoue as Fuuka, ZAQ as Aigis, and Waku Sakaguchi and Tomonori Suzuki as Ken. The musicals were also broadcast live on Niconico[157] and a behind-the-scenes special aired on Tokyo MX.[158]

The first play, Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade: The Blue Awakening ran from January 8–12, 2014, at Theater G Rosso,[159] and was given a home release on May 14, 2014.[160]The Blue Awakening followed events up to Fuuka's inclusion into the party.[161]

The Blue Awakening was followed up with a sequel, Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade: The Ultramarine Labyrinth, which ran from September 16–24, 2014, at Theater 1010[162][163] and was given a home release on January 28, 2015.[164] The play follows in-game events from July to early November. Richard Eisenbeis from Kotaku reviewed the play favorably, approving of its casting and special effects, but felt that the musical numbers were "out of place" and the protagonists had "zero personality."[165]

A third musical, titled Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade: The Bismuth Crystals ran from June 5–13, 2015,[166] and was given a home release on September 30, 2015.[167][168] The fourth and fifth stage plays, Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade: Act 4: Indigo Pledge and Persona 3: The Weird Masquerade: Final Act: Beyond the Blue Sky, ran from April 14–23, 2017.[169]


  1. ^Japanese: ペルソナ3, Hepburn: Perusona Surī
  2. ^コミュ, komyu, lit. "commu," short for "community"
  3. ^巖戸台
  4. ^影時間, kage jikan, lit. "Shadow Hour"
  5. ^ペルソナ3フェス, Perusona Surī Fesu
  6. ^ペルソナ3 ポータブル, Perusona Surī Pōtaburu


  1. ^Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. p. 28.
  2. ^Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. p. 25.
  3. ^ abBarnholt, Ray (May 8, 2007). "Previews: Persona 3". Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2007.
  4. ^ abcdVanOrd, Kevin (July 24, 2007). "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2007.
  5. ^ abcShin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 26–27.
  6. ^ abShin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 FES North American instruction manual. Atlus U.S.A, Inc. 2008. pp. 38–39.
  7. ^ abcdefgHaynes, Jeff (July 24, 2007). "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 Review". IGN. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
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Summon persona

While waiting, we went to the park, bought an ice cream and sat on a bench. - Why don't you scold me like a mother, do not be ashamed, they say, a lecher, and all that. she asked. - Come on, okay.

[Persona 3 The Movie] Minato awakens

I want to conduct. Bold said. What kind of conduct, what damn this fat man still wants from me, If he goes to see me off, then I will have to get into the car, but. This cannot be done, otherwise she will take me straight to the company and I will not be able to get out until I stay.

Now discussing:

He asked, ignoring my suggestion. - Yes, I lied to him. What about. Fall so fall.

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